There has been some updated work on the program, and details can be found at the Historical Williamsburg Living Narrative blog. You’ll be able to download a version of the program to compare navigation functionality with the map of locations. You’re invited to perform quality assurance testing!
Author Archives: digitalhap
Are you an educator using or possibly interested in using Interactive Fiction in the classroom? Take a look here: http://goo.gl/dtu5ix
PBS has produced a mini-documentary titled, “The Creativity of Indie Video Games.” This seven-and-a-half minute exploration into the phenomenon of the independently-produced video game raises some interesting questions regarding the potential development of games specifically as education content tied directly to learning outcomes. While the mini-documentary itself does not address the education issue, watching the piece while keeping in mind education needs will trigger some pretty interesting “What if?” ideas. I invite you to have a look and post any thoughts you might have.
Our family dog, a White German Shepherd, loves to play. That isn’t surprising. But what does fascinate me is that clearly our dog has very specific rules to the games he plays with us, and that different “games” have different rules. There is acceptable and unacceptable physical contact. There are “safe zones” when chasing or being chased. There are appropriate ways to call time out. All of these are rules that our dog worked out on his own, and he expects that we will follow them faithfully when we play. Play is serious business, after all.
After playing with Bolt (yes, I know, a White German Shepherd named Bolt just like the movie) over the years, I considered the concept of animals playing and having rules to their games just like people. Clearly, the evolutionary mechanism for play among dogs (and other animals) is to work on actual survival skills used in activities like hunting, protecting food, and fighting. I realized that the very same mechanism is a component of human play; that is, before we as a civilization began to formalize learning, we developed our survival skills through play competitions (the competitions of running and throwing things really speak to the skills we use in the hunt). It seems obvious that play developed to a large degree as a means of facilitating learning.
Then we humans formalized learning and sucked the fun of play right out of it.
The idea of gamification addresses the issue of play elements in the modern learning experience. Though more and more educators are becoming aware of the potential benefits, the majority of people in the teaching and learning community have not really made up their minds as to its value. The following articles on gamification are worth reading. If you do take a look, leave a comment here and let me and your fellow readers know what you think about the topic.
No, education is not like a pizza (nor is it like a box of chocolates), a commodity to be delivered–even if there is a transaction involved. However, many people do equate the process of educating with the task of information delivery, where students’ minds are vessels to be filled by the wisdom of some source. While that might be a component of the very complex and textured process of learning, it isn’t everything of course. One of the challenges to understanding the process is in identifying what all the components are, and after decades of “research,” it appears to me there are still major gaps in our understanding.
The article “Is Khan Academy a real ‘education solution’?” written by Valerie Strauss for The Washington Post is a more critical look at the approach the Khan Academy takes by “flipping” the classroom. I like the points that Strauss makes in her piece, especially regarding the issue of learning efficiency, and how we might come to know the efficiency of the process. While Strauss asks the question, I want to point out that we truly do not measure what is going on in the brain in terms of learning and cognition–not in a way that would give us a very clear and accurate picture of the effectiveness of various teaching practices. Last year I wrote a blog entry on that subject, “Practicing 18th Century Education in the 21st Century Classroom.” Also, it is worth mentioning that while there are common themes that may be effective for large groups of learners, the most efficient education processes are going to depend on customization to the learner. There will be no one-size-fits-all solutions. To a large degree, the Khan Academy videos fall in this bucket, but there are avenues for customization through the integration of interactive elements that “direct” the video clips–though this will add greatly to the complexity and cost of production.
Ultimately, though, if we are to know with certainty what education processes work for individual learners, we need to be able to take a look at what’s going on in learners’ minds. Outside of the occasional NASA experiment, we’re really not doing a whole lot of kind of research.
(Note: a version of this post is also on the Historical Williamsburg Living Narrative blog.)
I was quite pleased when I was contacted by Emily Short about the Historical Williamsburg Living Narrative. For those of us engaged in authoring Interactive Fiction, attracting the attention of Emily is a very gratifying experience. Emily has won multiple IF competition awards for many of her games including Galatea, Savoir-Faire, and Floatpoint (just to name a few). As it turns out, Emily was interested in the concept of my Williamsburg project, and she offered me an opportunity for an interview which she would publish on her blog, Emily Short’s Interactive Storytelling.
You can go directly to the interview by clicking on this link. I think the interview turned out well, but I’m biased regarding the topic. So be sure to read it yourself. Emily found the connection between my project and education to merit exploration, so several of her questions and my answers deal with topics such as learning objectives, assessment, and finding ways to make IF more accessible for teachers (an area that intersects with my doctoral research).
The project is well on its way to reaching the funding goal I set for it on Kickstarter. Ultimately, I would quite enjoy building a series of these historical IF games for use in the teaching and learning environment. However, first things first; I’ll see how it goes with this project and the funding needed to get off the ground. Please feel free to click here and go directly to the Kickstarter project page to see where it stands as the deadline approaches.
The development of course content, especially at higher levels where students are more sophisticated and discerning regarding their academic materials, has always been a challenge. It is important to be able to strike a balance between cost of development (both in resources and labor), instructor expertise, and turn-around time (or development time in response to current or recent events that might have an impact on the course learning objectives). Basically, it has been a question of what can the instructor build by him or herself, in time for the upcoming lessons, that isn’t going to involve a budget request from the department. Because of this dynamic, the “promise” of computer games transforming the education landscape has never really been realized, it if the prevailing thinking around this doesn’t change, neither will the landscape. What likely needs to occur is a shift in the expectation of games in education; designing a learning activity that plays like Modern Warfare–or even Angry Birds–is well out of reach of faculty skills and department budgets.
A possible pathway out of this impossible maze of twisty passages involves two strategies to be executed simultaneously:
- Utilize game formats and development tools that individual instructors can use effectively
- Be creative in finding methods of funding (and the funding should only need to cover relatively small amounts)
It is with both of these points in mind that I developed the Historical Williamsburg Living Narrative Kickstarter project. To the first point, I selected an “old school” type of computer game that can be developed quite effectively by a single person; an instructor who wishes to build something small scale in time for the upcoming semester, for example. To the second point, I decided to fund my project through Kickstarter, a crowd sourced funding model in which backers make donations rather than investments (meaning that if the developer is able to raise the funding, there is no pressure that the project become profitable enough for repayment).
My idea is simple: if instructors can use a form of computer games such as Interactive Fiction (a form that the literature shows is effective even with reluctant readers), they would be able to develop smaller game exercises that can be integrated into their curriculum, and expanded upon over time. With Kickstarter funding covering some relatively minor miscellaneous costs, there would be no significant budgetary impact to take into consideration.
(In fact, we could go even further and consider the creation of an education-specific form of Kickstarter. Imagine institutions tapping into their alumni base for course material development or even program funding on a smaller scale.)
I invite you to review the Kickstarter project by clicking here. The funding window is open until early June on that project. You can find additional material on the project at the official project blog by clicking here. Please feel free to share your thoughts, and I’ll be sure to report back throughout the development process.
While attending the 2012 Game Developers’ Conference last month in San Francisco, one of the presentations I sat in on was about measuring the level of frustration game players go through during certain game play bottlenecks. The presentation, “Arrggghh!!! Blending Quanititative and Qualitative Methods to Detect Player Frustration,” given by Janus Sorensen of Crystal Dynamics/IO Interactive (Square Enix), laid out the qualitative (observing and interviewing players) and quantitative (automatic data gathering) methods of research analysis that he used in assessing player frustration in the game Kane and Lynch 2: Dog Days. The methods were executed using a fairly standard academic methodology of observation and interviews, and while the results were meaningful, the manner in which they were obtained was labor intensive and not well-suited for broad application. And neither were the conclusions transferable to other games.
I wasn’t too surprised to hear that a member of the hacker community was working on a project to use the Xbox and a web cam to “read emotions” while watching television or playing video games. Dale Lane writes about his experiments on his blog located here. Using relatively simple and accessible technology along with some good ole’ programming ingenuity, Dale has crafted a way to roughly “measure” emotions through facial expressions. While much refinement still needs to occur, this is a great start to effectively gathering quantitative data regarding emotions evoked during different segments of game play… and thereby facilitating improvements in the games tested for this type of player interaction.
So why not apply this technique to online or computer-based coursework in the teaching and learning environment? It seems to me that we might be able to make some real and meaningful improvements to course content if we understood where students are struggling and frustrated as well as where students feel confident and happy about the way in which the content is presented? Perhaps I need to reach out to Dale and see if he’s up for a partner project….